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A New Way To Manage--Integrated Planning and Control
Tomb, John O.
5/1  (Fall 1962): 57-62

This article focuses on a new way to manage integrated planning and control. The new approach developed by pioneering companies is called as "Integrated Planning and Control" (IPC)". Under this approach, the planning and control process is no longer a numerical exercise so separate from day-to-day operations that it appears to be pursued as an end in itself. Nor is it a procedure restricting the actions of line managers to a pattern imposed by some other part of the organization. Instead, IPC is a job-oriented approach to planning-an approach that concentrates on planning action. For example, under IPC a sales manager is required to develop his marketing program before he sets a sales target. There are three distinctive characteristics of integrated planning and control that enable it to make unusual contributions to corporate profit. First, it multiplies the creative and constructive analysis of improvement opportunities by every manager who participates in the process. Second, it identifies him so closely with his work, his objectives, and his opportunities that he functions far more effectively in the pursuit of his goals. Third, it provides managers with a basis for positive control instead of merely giving them historical analysis or explanations. As a result, managers can deal imaginatively with change rather than defensively with their shortcomings.
 

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