W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and other American experts have rightfully earned a place in history for their significant contributions to the industrial development of Japan. However, the U.S . Training Within Industries (TWI) programs, installed in Japan by the Occupation authorities after World War II, may well have been even more influential. At least ten million Japanese managers, supervisors, and workers are graduates of the TWI programs or one of their many derivative courses, which still remain in wide use in Japan. Indeed, a number of management practices thought of as "Japanese" trace their roots to TWI. Japan's TWI experience offers important lessons to countries seeking to boost industrial productivity and quality on a national scale.