California Management Review
California Management Review is a premier academic management journal published at UC Berkeley
by Soumodip Sarkar
Image Credit | Andrea De Santis
In the domain of management practice and research, a substantial transformation is unfolding in contemporary history, primarily attributable to the advent of machine learning methodologies (George et al., 2014). These advanced techniques harness extensive data repositories to project individual and group behaviors with remarkable accuracy. This progression is intrinsically linked to the broader field of artificial intelligence (AI), an area that has witnessed tremendous growth and enhancements (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014; Haenlein & Kaplan, 2019), profoundly reshaping the modus operandi of businesses, organizations, and societies as a whole.
“A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence: On the Past, Present, and Future of Artificial Intelligence” by Michael Haenlein & Andreas Kaplan. (Vol. 61/4) 2019.
A noteworthy development within this arena, is the emergence of natural language processing models or NLPs (Hirschberg & Manning, 2015), which possess the ability to decode, analyze, and construct text that bears an uncanny resemblance to human-generated prose. Among these innovative models, the GPT architecture by OpenAI is distinguished as a state-of-the-art breakthrough (Clarke et al., 2021), showcasing exceptional proficiency in producing text that closely mimics human authorship. The recent introduction of latest generation of GPT architecture unveiled in March 2023, GPT-4, promises to disrupt traditional work structures and processes in numerous ways. Its ability to perform tasks such as content creation, data analysis, and customer support has led to a reevaluation of human and AI roles within organizations. The GPT-4 model, and similar advanced NLPs, exhibits a remarkable semblance to human-like performance, thereby revolutionizing diverse industries, augmenting decision-making processes, and fostering unparalleled opportunities for ingenuity and synergy across multiple sectors. This pivotal development has been aptly christened as the ‘inception of authentic artificial intelligence’ (Economist, 2023). As a cutting-edge language model devised by OpenAI, GPT-4’s potential to engender a profound influence on management practice and research is rapidly becoming evident.
As AI models like GPT-4 become increasingly integrated into businesses, organizations need to adapt their strategies and human resources practices accordingly (Agrawal et al., 2019). This involves redefining job roles, redesigning organizational structures, and reskilling employees to capitalize on the unique capabilities of both humans and AI (Bessen, 2019; Manyika et al., 2017).
In this post, we delve into the tensions surrounding the relationship between human expertise and AI-driven language models, specifically focusing on the GPT-4 language model and its integration in management practice and research. Rather than perceiving these NLP models as threatening or substituting human capabilities, our framework envisions a synergetic interplay between human expertise and the AI-driven instruments in the realm of management practice. Drawing inspiration from existing literature on digital technologies and AI within organizational contexts (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014; Kaplan & Haenlein, 2019), we argue that AI-driven mechanisms will serve to enhance, rather than supplant, human faculties. Consequently, the trajectory of management practice and research may be contingent upon cultivating a reciprocal alliance with AI, wherein both human and machine intelligence collaborate in a synergistic manner to further the boundaries of knowledge in the discipline.
While the rapid evolution of AI-generated content raises ethical and legal concerns, such as intellectual property rights and the potential for misinformation or manipulation (Brundage et al., 2018), our primary objective is to explore typologies of user types in the context of GPT-4 usage and similar advanced NLP models. By focusing on information retrieval and creative applications, we aim to provide a comprehensive framework for understanding and employing this technology in diverse contexts.
In examining the nascent schools of thought surrounding the implications of these technological advancements for businesses and management scholars, we acknowledge the ongoing debates concerning ethics, workplace implications, and changes in management routines. However, our focus remains on contemplating typologies of user types, represented by a two-by-two matrix. By comparing the dual dimensions of GPT-4 usage—information retrieval versus creative applications—against the categories of users who can harness its potential, we aim to provide a comprehensive framework to better understand and navigate the diverse ways in which this groundbreaking innovation can be employed across various contexts.
In Figure 1, we propose a 2x2 matrix of ChatGPT-4 (and similar NLP models) user archetypes, based on two primary dimensions: the purpose of the interaction (information vs. creativity) and the level of refinement or leveraging of the model’s output (raw output vs. refined output). As the technological landscape continues to evolve at a rapid pace, the integration of AI-driven tools like ChatGPT-4 into various business and management practices has become crucial for staying competitive. Our user archetypes elucidate the varying ways that these tools can be employed to improve productivity, generate novel ideas, and enhance the quality of output in diverse professional domains.
Figure 1: Synergistic Frontiers: The confluence of Human Expertise and AI-Driven Language Models
Informed Explorers (Information + Raw Output): These users turn to ChatGPT-4 for quick answers or overviews of various topics. They are not necessarily seeking high-quality final output but rather general knowledge or insights. Informed Explorers might include casual users, students looking for quick explanations, or professionals needing immediate information. In the realm of business and management, Informed Explorers might comprise of managers or executives seeking quick (and reliable) insights to inform decision-making, entrepreneurs researching new market opportunities, or team members addressing immediate queries during meetings. For instance, a project manager might utilize ChatGPT-4 to rapidly acquire an overview of Agile methodologies, or a marketing professional may seek a cursory understanding of a competitor’s latest campaign. A researcher, much as this author of the post, can leverage NLPs to use the potential of AI in quickly seeking insightful and informative content.
Insightful Refiners (Information + Refined Output): These users engage with ChatGPT-4 to gather information but then refine and synthesize the AI’s output into polished, high-quality final products. They might be researchers, analysts, or writers creating detailed reports or articles, relying on ChatGPT-4 for initial information and then applying their expertise to elevate the content.
For individuals in roles where precision and depth are of paramount importance, the Insightful Refiner archetype becomes quite relevant. These users recognize the potential of advanced and intelligent NLPs as a foundation to build upon, rather than as a source of final products. Market analysts, for example, may employ ChatGPT-4 to gather raw data on industry trends, subsequently refining the information to create comprehensive reports. Similarly, management consultants could utilize ChatGPT-4 to obtain preliminary data on best practices, subsequently crafting tailored recommendations for their clients.
Creative Catalysts (Creativity + Raw Output): These users employ ChatGPT-4 as a source of inspiration for creative projects, leveraging the AI’s raw output as a starting point. They might be writers, artists, or designers who use ChatGPT-4 to brainstorm ideas, generate rough drafts, or create initial designs, understanding that further human refinement will be necessary.
This archetype can also represent users who use AI-powered tools as a springboard for their creative endeavors. In the context of business and management, a product designer might engage for instance with ChatGPT-4 to generate an array of innovative concepts for a new product line, later refining and curating the ideas through human intervention. Advertising executives could also benefit from the Creative Catalyst archetype, employing ChatGPT-4 to brainstorm potential taglines or campaign slogans before selecting and refining the most compelling option.
Artful Architects (Creativity + Refined Output): This archetype is characterized by users who tap into the creative prowess of ChatGPT-4, elevating and refining the AI-generated content to produce polished and tailored final products. In the business world, this might include public relations professionals who use ChatGPT-4 to draft press releases, subsequently editing and optimizing the content to align with their company’s unique voice and messaging. Social media managers may also exemplify this archetype, employing ChatGPT-4 to generate a range of post ideas, then refining and customizing the content to resonate with their target audience and support specific marketing objectives.
Artful Architects harness ChatGPT-4’s creative capabilities and then build upon and refine the AI-generated content to create high-quality final output. They might include content creators, marketers, or social media managers who use ChatGPT-4 to draft content and then meticulously polish and optimize it to meet their specific goals and requirements.
This conceptual model of Synergistic Frontiers between AI-powered tools and humans, highlights the diverse range of applications for tools like ChatGPT-4 in the business and management sphere. By understanding and capitalizing on these user archetypes, professionals can effectively leverage the capabilities of advanced and intelligent NLPs to optimize their workflows, enhance the quality of their output, and ultimately drive greater success in their respective fields.
Our analysis of these user typologies elucidates the potential challenges and opportunities inherent in AI-driven technologies, equipping stakeholders with the knowledge required to make informed decisions regarding the integration of GPT-4 and similar NLP models into organizational processes. By focusing on user types and their respective applications, we foster a more comprehensive understanding of AI’s role in transforming the future of work and management practices.
The typology we present provides an in-depth perspective on the versatile applications of ChatGPT-4 and comparable NLP models across various contexts. By delineating distinct user archetypes based on the interaction purpose and output refinement level, our framework offers insights into the ways in which diverse users can engage with and derive benefits from AI-driven language models. This understanding allows organizations to customize their AI deployment strategies to address the specific needs of each user archetype, optimizing value and efficiency. Additionally, the matrix facilitates the exploration of AI adoption implications across industries, organizational functions, and job roles, shedding light on the challenges and opportunities tied to the incorporation of AI-generated content in everyday work and leisure situations.
In this exploration, we introduce a two-by-two matrix to elucidate the typologies of GPT-4 user types, underscoring the distinctions between information retrieval and creative applications as the two dimensions that define the varying degrees of AI adoption. This analytical framework serves to elucidate how distinct user categories can capitalize on the transformative power of GPT-4 and analogous NLP models. By examining the interaction between these dimensions and user types, we aim to provide valuable insights for businesses and management scholars alike, offering actionable guidance for effectively integrating AI-driven tools into a diverse array of contexts. Furthermore, rather than engaging in a man vs. machine debate, we emphasize the importance of leveraging technology. This vision promotes the idea of fostering a collaborative environment, where human and machine intelligence coalesce to create a future where the strengths of both entities are leveraged to achieve advancements in the field of management practice and research.
The collaboration between human and AI intelligence holds the potential to significantly enhance decision-making processes within organizations (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014; Daugherty & Wilson, 2018). AI-generated insights can complement human judgment and intuition by providing data-driven recommendations and identifying patterns that may be difficult for humans to discern (Davenport & Ronanki, 2018). For instance, AI models can help uncover hidden correlations or trends in large datasets, enabling decision-makers to make more informed choices (Chui et al., 2018). Moreover, NLP models like GPT-4 can assist in analyzing vast amounts of textual information, making it easier for humans to process and synthesize valuable insights from diverse sources (Hirschberg & Manning, 2015).
On the other hand, human expertise remains crucial in refining and contextualizing the insights provided by AI models (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2019). Decision-makers can draw on their experience, domain knowledge, and understanding of organizational culture to interpret AI-generated findings and make nuanced judgments (Manyika et al., 2017). This collaborative approach can lead to more effective and innovative decisions, as it combines the strengths of both human and machine intelligence (Davenport & Kirby, 2016). By fostering an environment in which AI-driven tools and human expertise work in synergy, organizations can leverage the power of AI to achieve unprecedented advancements in management practice and research, while also ensuring that decisions remain grounded in the human values and context that define their organizational identity (Bostrom & Yudkowsky, 2014; Daugherty & Wilson, 2018).
Despite the remarkable capabilities of the AI driven models, it is crucial to recognize their limitations to avoid overreliance and maintain a balanced perspective (Amodei et al., 2016; Bostrom & Yudkowsky, 2014). One of the main challenges is the models’ inability to fully understand context and the nuances of human language, which may lead to the generation of inappropriate or nonsensical content (Bender & Koller, 2020). Additionally, these models can sometimes produce plausible-sounding but incorrect or misleading information, posing potential risks when used in decision-making processes (Radford et al., 2019). Furthermore, ensuring transparency and explainability in AI models remains a challenge, particularly as they become more complex (Arrieta et al., 2020). Acknowledging these limitations is vital to guide future research and development in the field, as well as to inform organizations on how to best utilize AI-driven tools in their operations.
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